Ukraine has a unique mineral resource base and by this indicator it comprises the part of the leading countries of the world. This is primarily due to the diversity of geological structure and a complex multistage history of its development.

Metallogenic map of Ukraine
Metallogenic map of Ukraine

The territory of Ukraine by the metallogenic zoning is divided into the following metallogenic provinces: Ukrainian Shield, Dniprovsko-Donetska metallogenic province, Dnister – Fore Black Sea metallogenic province, Carpathian-Crimean metallogenic province.

Metallogenic province of Ukrainian Shield includes Volyn, Podilska, Kirovograd, Middle-Dniprean and Azov sub-provinces and is characterized by the most variety of deposits. In addition to well-known types of minerals such as iron, titanium, uranium, some minerals new for the region are discovered. Specifically, granite-greenstone belts, developed in the Middle-Dniprean area (Surska, Verkhivtsivsko-Chortomlytska tectonic and metallogenic zones) are prominent in gold mineralization. The lithium pegmatite fields (Zvenigorodsko-Khmelivska, Fedorivska metallogenic zones) are discovered in the synclinal troughs and epicratonic depressions filled with Proterozoic volcanic-sedimentary formations.

Rare-metal ores related to sub-alkaline and alkaline rocks and confined to Sushchano-Perzhanska and Pryazovska tectonic-metallogenic zones, are the multi-component raw materials (tantalum, niobium, beryllium, zirconium, tin, molybdenum, lithium), which require integrated development. Korostenska and Korsun-Novomyrgorodska tectonic-metallogenic zones composed of rapakivi-granite and gabbro formations, are specialized for titanium, vanadium, and scandium.

Rather distinct gold deposits are discovered in relation with gneiss-granulite complexes, volcano-plutonic belts and activation zones (Golovanivska, Kirovogradska, tectonic- metallogenic zones). Volcano-plutonic belts in Volyn sub-province are prospective for sulfide-copper-nickel mineralization associated with pyroxenite-gabbro-norite and gabbro-dolerite-troctolite formations.

Dniprovsko-Donetska metallogenic province is characterized by the development of mercury, gold, polymetallic, copper mineralization, associated with carbonate-terrigenous, salt lagoon, evaporate and terrigenous red-color Paleozoic formations (Central, Bahmutsko-Nagolna tectonic-metallogenic zones).

The Dnister – Fore Black Sea metallogenic province is distinct in the native copper mineralization in Vendian flood basalts (Lukivsko-Ratnivska metallogenic zone) and fluorspar in Vendian terrigenous-continental formation (Podilsko-Dnisterska metallogenic zone).

For the Carpathian-Crimean metallogenic province is typical the mineralization of gold, polymetallic ores, mercury in andesite-basalt, liparite-dacite and green-schist formations (Transcarpathians, Marmaroska tectonic-metallogenic zone), and iron in the iron-sandy-clayey formation (Kerch iron ore area).

The basis of the mineral resource base of Ukraine comprises metallic mineral deposits that are represented by all groups of metals: ferrous, non-ferrous, precious, radioactive, rare and rare earth metals, trace elements (metals). Deposits of iron, manganese, uranium, and titanium ores are extensively developed nowadays in Ukraine; proven commercial reserves are estimated for deposits of copper, gold, chromium, nickel, beryllium, lithium, vanadium, scandium, lead, zinc, aluminum, niobium, tantalum, strontium, hafnium, cadmium, silver, and rare earth elements. As a result of prospecting and exploration works, the high probability of discovery of tungsten, tin, molybdenum, platinum, rare metals deposits is revealed.

High-prospective for molybdenum discovery is the north-western part of Ukrainian Shield where Ustynivska area of stockwork type ore bodies (Verbynskiy, Ustynivskiy, Vysokiy, Richytsya occurrences) is delineated in Perzhanske ore field​​. According to prospecting results, reserves by category C2 and prospective resources P1 are estimated in occurrences at the average molybdenum grade 0.32%. In the Middle-Dniprean within Surska greenstone structure East-Sergiivskiy occurrence is discovered in thick zones of vein-disseminated ores with molybdenum content 0.03-2.65% and prospective ore resources are estimated to the depth of 300 m. Certain probability of finding molybdenum-tungsten ores is related to sub-volcanic structures in Eastern Azov, where a range of occurrences is found: Verbove, Novoselivske, Kaplanivske, Kichiks, Barbarysivske and tungsten resources are preliminary estimated (at WO3 0.15% cut-off grade).

Prospects for the discovery of tin in Ukraine are related to the North-Western part of Ukrainian Shield. In Sushchano-Perzhanska area with granite and rare-metal metasomatites the tin-bearing formation of two genetic types are well known: columbite-cassiterite in placers and cassiterite-columbite in weathering crust. Later on a number of promising hard-rock ore occurrences were discovered that belong to cassiterite- (wolframite)-quartz type. These are first of all Zakhidniy, Karyerniy, Girnyatskiy, Zahidnoyastrubetskiy occurrences with average tin content 0.14-0.16%.

Metallic minerals (Interactive map)